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Mechanisms for non-ideal flow in low-power arc-heated supersonic nozzles
Wu CK(吴承康)1; Pan WX(潘文霞)1; Meng X(孟显)1; Wang, Hai-Xing2; Wu, CK (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Mech, State Key Lab High Temp Gas Dynam, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
Source PublicationACTA MECHANICA SINICA
2015-08-01
Volume31Issue:4Pages:500-511
ISSN0567-7718
Abstract

The flow in a low-powered arc gas heater combined with a supersonic nozzle of throat diameter less than 1 mm is quite complicated and difficult to describe in quantitative detail. Experiments on arc-heated supersonic jet thrusters of monatomic gases argon and helium have been carried out and their performance measured. The flow characteristics are analyzed with the help of numerical simulation. Results show that the viscous effect is the most important factor causing the large difference between ideal and real performance. A large outer section of the exit flow is slow-moving. This is especially pronounced in helium, where 70 % of the exit area of the nozzle might be in subsonic flow. Friction forces can be much larger than the net thrust, reaching several times higher in helium, resulting in very low efficiencies. Other factors causing the differences between ideal and real flow include: complex flow in the throat region, electric arc extending to the nozzle expansion section, heat transfer to the inlet gas and from the hot plasma, and environmental pressure in the vacuum chamber. It is recognized that the ordinary concepts of supersonic nozzle flow must be greatly modified when dealing with such complicated situations. The general concepts presented in this paper could be helpful in guiding the design and operation of this equipment.;The flow in a low-powered arc gas heater combined with a supersonic nozzle of throat diameter less than 1 mm is quite complicated and difficult to describe in quantitative detail. Experiments on arc-heated supersonic jet thrusters of monatomic gases argon and helium have been carried out and their performance measured. The flow characteristics are analyzed with the help of numerical simulation. Results show that the viscous effect is the most important factor causing the large difference between ideal and real performance. A large outer section of the exit flow is slow-moving. This is especially pronounced in helium, where 70 % of the exit area of the nozzle might be in subsonic flow. Friction forces can be much larger than the net thrust, reaching several times higher in helium, resulting in very low efficiencies. Other factors causing the differences between ideal and real flow include: complex flow in the throat region, electric arc extending to the nozzle expansion section, heat transfer to the inlet gas and from the hot plasma, and environmental pressure in the vacuum chamber. It is recognized that the ordinary concepts of supersonic nozzle flow must be greatly modified when dealing with such complicated situations. The general concepts presented in this paper could be helpful in guiding the design and operation of this equipment.

KeywordArc-heated Supersonic Jet Low-power Real Flow Viscosity Effect Low Reynolds Number
DOI10.1007/s10409-015-0430-9
URL查看原文
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000360540200007
WOS KeywordThrusters ; Deposition
WOS Research AreaEngineering ; Mechanics
WOS SubjectEngineering, Mechanical ; Mechanics
Funding OrganizationThis work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 50836007, 11475239, 10921062, and 11275021).
DepartmentLHD应用等离子体力学(CPCR)
Classification二类
Ranking1
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://dspace.imech.ac.cn/handle/311007/55775
Collection高温气体动力学国家重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorWu, CK (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Mech, State Key Lab High Temp Gas Dynam, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Mech, State Key Lab High Temp Gas Dynam, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
2.Beijing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Sch Astronaut, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wu CK,Pan WX,Meng X,et al. Mechanisms for non-ideal flow in low-power arc-heated supersonic nozzles[J]. ACTA MECHANICA SINICA,2015,31(4):500-511
APA Wu CK,Pan WX,Meng X,Wang, Hai-Xing,&Wu, CK .(2015).Mechanisms for non-ideal flow in low-power arc-heated supersonic nozzles.ACTA MECHANICA SINICA,31(4),500-511.
MLA Wu CK,et al."Mechanisms for non-ideal flow in low-power arc-heated supersonic nozzles".ACTA MECHANICA SINICA 31.4(2015):500-511.
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