As a result of the "Speed Up" campaigns initiated in the end of last centurywhen commercial train service averaged 48 km/h, China now has the world's longest highspeed rail (HSR) network. In the past decade, China Railway High-speed (CRH) has undergone numerous technological innovation to ensure their safe, eco-friendly, and economicaloperation. With the privilege of involving in the construction and operation of such a largescale and long distance HSR network, researchers and engineers in the eld have gained systematic and deep understanding about the dynamic system composed of train, wheels andrails, catenary and pantograph, and aerodynamic resistance. In this review paper, we summarize current research progress covering aerodynamics, catenary-pantograph interaction,dynamics and related issues of carbody, stability analysis, rail-wheel interaction, reliabilityof key components, and mechanisms about noise-generation. At the end, we supply ourperspective about opportunities and challenges for future research and development on themechanics of high speed rail.