IMECH-IR  > 高温气体动力学国家重点实验室
旋转式气波制冷机波传播特性研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Wave Propagation Characteristics of Rotary Gas Wave Refrigerator
杨丛笑
Thesis Advisor赵伟 研究员
2019-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Subtype硕士
Degree Discipline流体力学
Keyword气波制冷机,制冷效率,激波,膨胀波,反射波
Abstract

气波制冷机是利用气体压力能驱动振荡管实现气源制冷的一种设备。其主要工作原理是利用气源压缩另外介质做功时产生的非定常膨胀波对气源进行制冷。由于气波制冷机可将气体本身所携带的压力能有效利用起来,符合节能环保、可持续发展的理念。另外,气波制冷机具有结构简单、造价低、操作维护简单等优点,在工业上具有广阔的应用前景。但在实际应用中其制冷效率还有待于进一步提高,因此对气波制冷机的研究具有十分重要的应用价值。本文对旋转式气波制冷机进行了深入的数值研究,得到了管壁传热、管长、频率、压比等因素对其制冷性能的影响规律,并从气体动力学角度分析了振荡管内部的波传播特性,分析了制冷性能的变化规律。在此基础上提出了其核心部件—旋转分配器的优化方案,设计并加工了一台旋转式气波制冷机,搭建了实验测试平台,对其进行了相关实验研究,获得了良好的实验结果。本文的主要研究内容如下:

1)管壁传热对振荡管稳定运行及制冷机效率有较大的影响。本文数值研究了振荡管管壁不散热的绝热壁条件和理想散热300K等温壁条件传热对气波制冷机运行状况的影响,结合振荡管的温度分布特点,提出了半绝热壁半等温壁的设计方法,该壁面条件可维持气波制冷机的稳定运行,并一定程度的提高了制冷效率。

2)气波制冷机效率受管壁传热、管长、旋转频率、压比的影响明显。本文通过数值方法分别详细研究了它们对制冷性能的影响,首次采用波系图给出了振荡管内的激波运动特性,结合波系图分析它们对效率的影响机理及规律并给出了效率优化的准则。

3)结合数值研究的效率优化准则,本文对旋转分配器结构进行了优化,在气波制冷机内部加装了叶轮装置,完成了一台气波制冷机样机的设计及实验验证,并开展了不同压比、不同转速的实验研究,实验中的波系运动规律与计算结果符合良好,并通过数值模拟得到的波系图对实验测得的压力变化规律进行了解释。

Other Abstract

Gas Wave Refrigerator (GWR) is a kind of equipment that can utilize the pressure energy of the gas to refrigerate the gas by driving the pressure oscillation tube. GWR is based on the theory of unsteady expansion waves. As GWR can make full use of the pressure itself, it is energy saving and environmental. In addition, GWR is the advantages of simple structure, low cost, easy operation and robust, and is a broad application prospect and market demand in industry. However, in practical application, the refrigeration efficiency still needs to be further improved, so the research on the gas wave refrigerator has an important application value. In this thesis, the effects of wall heat transfer, tube length, rotation frequencies, pressure ratios and other factors on the refrigeration performance of a GWR are studied numerically. Basing above, an optimized scheme of GWR’s core component - rotary distributor is proposed, and a new rotary GWR is designed and assembled. The experimental platform is set up to verify the numerical simulation. The relevant experimental result is compared with the numerical simulation, and is analyzed deeply. The main research achievements of this thesis are as follows:

(1) The wall heat transfer has great influence on the stable operation of oscillating tube and the efficiency of refrigerator. In this paper, the author compare the effect of the  oscillation tube wall and 300K isothermal wall on operation condition of GWR. Combined with the temperature distribution characteristics of the oscillating tube, the design method of semi-adiabatic wall and semi-isothermal wall is proposed in this paper, which can maintain the stable operation of gas wave refrigerator and improve the refrigeration efficiency to some extent.

(2) The efficiency of gas wave refrigerator is obviously affected by tube wall heat transfer, tube length, rotation frequency and pressure ratio. In this paper, their effects on refrigeration performance are studied in detail by numerical method. For the first time, the characteristics of shock motion in an oscillating tube are given by using wave diagram. And the mechanism and rule of their effect on efficiency are analyzed with wave diagram, and the criterion of efficiency optimization is given.

(3). In this paper, combined with the efficiency optimization criteria of the numerical study, the structure of the rotary distributor is optimized, and an impeller device is installed inside the GWR. This paper has completed the design and experimental verification of a GWR, and carried out experimental research of different pressure ratios and rotating speeds. The motion law of wave system in the experiment is in good agreement with the calculated results. And in this paper, the wave diagram obtained by numerical simulation is used to explain the law of pressure change.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://dspace.imech.ac.cn/handle/311007/79125
Collection高温气体动力学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨丛笑. 旋转式气波制冷机波传播特性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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