IMECH-IR  > 高温气体动力学国家重点实验室
Alternative TitleStudy of low-power ammonia arcjet thruster
Thesis Advisor潘文霞
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline一般力学与力学基础
Keyword小功率电弧推力器 氨推进剂 比冲 推力效率 放电特性
Other Abstract

100W 级的小功率 Arcjet
推进剂。本论文工作采用实验室自行研制的小功率电弧推力器, 以氨为推进剂,
实现了电弧推力器的长时间稳定运行, 对推力器的运行参数与性能的关联进行了
1 m,长 1.4 m
3500 L/s, 极限真空 10-4 Pa。实验条件范围为弧电流 120
260 mA,气流量 200 mL/min600 mL/min。 电弧推力器喷管的喉道直径 0.3
、喉道长度 0.5 mm,改变扩张比和阴极尖到喉道的间距,对电弧推力器进行
了性能测试。采用测量羽流冲击力的方式, 得到推力器在不同工况条件下的推力
数据,结合采集的弧电流、弧电压及气流量等工作参数, 推算出推力器的比冲和
ICCD 拍照相结合的方法,对推力器喷管
10000 s 时间内,性能稳定。
随着输入电功率的增加,喷管略有红热,肉眼几乎观测不到羽流。 推力器产生的
在本研究的实验参数范围内, 电弧推力器比冲在
200 s350 s 之间; 推力效率的
总趋势是随比功率的增大而降低;在本实验参数范围内, 当比功率相同时,推力
60 W95 W、气流量 300 mL/min600
的条件下, 推力器 A(扩张比 300、阴极尖与喉道间距 1.7 mm) 的推力
13.5%43.6%之间。 压缩段压力随气流量的增加而增大,弧电流变化
400 V
600 V 之间,远高于 1 kW 级氨电弧加热推力器 100 V 量级的电压值。在实验参


Low-power arcjet thrusters less than 100 W-class have attracted broad attention in
recent years for small satellites application, due to the limits of the weight and available
electric power on board. There is significantly reduced toxicity of ammonia compared
to hydrazine propellant. And ammonia has a great advantage in storability and
portability than gas type propellants. In the present work, experiments had been
conducted to investigate the performance of a low-power arcjet thruster designed by
the laboratory with ammonia as the propellant. The thruster could stably operate
continuously, and the thruster performance was discussed related to the working
The performance of the ammonia arcjet thruster was studied experimentally, in a
vacuum chamber of 1 m diameter and 1.4 m length with a pumping system capable of
3500 L/s. The extreme vacuum of the chamber can reach 10
-4 Pa. The arc current was
changed from 120 mA to 260 mA, and gas flow rate varied from 200 mL/min to 600
mL/min. The thruster nozzles have the same throat size of 0.3 mm diameter and 0.5 mm
length but different expansion ratios and the distance from cathode tip to the throat. The
thrust generated by the low-power arcjet was measured by indirect method. The specific
impulse and thrust efficiency were derived from the operating parameter including arc
current, arc voltage and gas flow rate, and the measured thrust. The discharge condition
in the nozzle of the arcjet thruster was observed using a copper mirror and recorded by
an ICCD camera.
The experiment results indicated that the ammonia arcjet thruster could operate
stably up to nearly ten thousand seconds. The nozzle was slightly red-hot with
increasing input power, and the jet plume could hardly be observed. In this study, the
thrust produced by the thruster increased as the increasing of gas flow rate in the range
of 200 mL/min
600 mL/min. At the same gas flow rate, the higher the electrical input
power is, the higher the specific impulse is, ranging from 200 s to 350 s. The thrust
efficiency increased with the decreasing specific power and also with the increasing gas
flow rate. For example, thrust efficiency of the thruster, with the anode-cathode distance
1.7 mm and expansion ratio 300, ranged from 13.5% to 43.6% at the electrical input
power of 60 W
95 W, and the gas flow rate of 300 mL/min600 mL/min. The
thruster had a reduced volt-ampere characteristic, with the voltage ranging from around
600 V to 400 V, which is much higher than the voltage of the 1 kW class ammonia arcjet
thruster. Furthermore, it is found that the arc volume passes through the constrictor and
that the arc-root is circumferentially attached to the expansion section of the anode

Call NumberMas2018-028
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨春玲. 小功率氨电弧推力器性能研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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